Originally, the term FPD/AML was created because the first families showed development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). With time, we have recognized that individuals are also at risk for the development of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), which is a pre-leukemia, as well as T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and also B cell malignancies.
AML is acute myeloid leukemia (also known as acute myelogenous leukemia or acute nonlymphoctyic leukemia), a cancer of the myeloid line of blood cells, characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal white blood cells that accumulate in the bone marrow and interfere with the production of normal blood cells. AML is the most common acute leukemia affecting adults and accounts for roughly 1.2 percent of cancer deaths in the United States.
MDS stands for myelodysplastic syndromes - a group of diverse bone marrow disorders in which the bone marrow does not produce enough healthy blood cells. MDS is often referred to as a “bone marrow failure disorder”. Failure of the bone marrow to produce mature healthy cells is a gradual process. The patient suffers cytopenias (reduced blood or cell counts) which can impair the body’s ability to fight infections and control bleeding.
T-ALL is T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, which affects the lymphoid lineage, specifically those called T lymphocytes.
B cell malignancies are types of lymphoma affecting B cells. Lymphomas are blood cancers in the lymph nodes.